The Three-Fifths Compromise

Annotated Bibliography

                                                                                                                                    Primary Sources: 6

Brewster, Francis E. Slavery and the Constitution. Philadelphia: 1850.

          In his short book The Slavery and the Constitution, Brewster describes all the problems of slavery that are argued over preceding the Civil War. His manner of
          presenting these issues seems as though he is speaking to the public, as the issues are organized into lists rather than provoking a ranting opinion. While the 3/5
          Compromise is not specifically mentioned, all the problems with slavery listed in this book are the reasons behind the creation of the Thirteenth Amendment,
          which abolishes slavery and therefore nullifies the compromise.

Douglass, Frederick. The Constitution and SlaveryThe North Star, 1849.<>

          Frederick Douglass, as a radical abolitionist, presents specific articles in the Constitution and creates his own interpretation of their meaning. He includes the 3/5
          Compromise clause and shows, through breaking down each phrase of the clause, how the compromise has done nothing but benefit the South. His argument is
          both valid and controversial, which is why it is useful.

Madison, James, and Hamilton Alexander. The Federalist 54. 1788.<>.

          In their essay The Federalist, Madison and Hamilton expressed their views on the subject of direct taxes and how slaves should be counted as either people or  
          property. They present their own arguments and then the reactions their arguments may induce in their opposition to weigh both sides of the situation evenly and
          show how their own is the better. This is a primary source and can provide useful information on the views of the men who participated in the compromise.

Madison, James. Notes of the Constitutional Convention. 1787.<>.

          James Madison, being a participant in the Constitutional Conventions, took notes on the discussions and arguments that took place. His notes were decoded and
          written as a word document on this website, providing a useful primary source to the actual compromise and Madison's own views on the events that occurred.

Madison, James. Notes of the Constitutional Convention. 1787. <>.

          James Madison, being a participant in the Constitutional Conventions, took notes on the discussions and arguments that took place. His notes were decoded and
          written as a word document on this website, providing a useful primary source to the actual compromise and Madison's own views on the events that occurred.

Washington, George, et. al. The Constitution of the United States of America. September 17th, 1787: March 4th, 1789

          What better a source than The Constitution itself? The 3/5 Compromise in its final wording is included in Article One, which can be used to define the compromise
          directly. In addition all the Amendments are listed, and the thirteenth Amendment can be defined as well as part of our final project.

                                                                                                                                     Secondary Sources: 10

The Constitution and Slavery. Digital History. Web. 02 May 2010.<>.

          The other point of view on slavery in the constitution is seen in this article. They describe why the framers did not ban slavery in the constitution as a defense against
          disunity in the Union. They sensed that southern states like Georgia and South Carolina would have left the Union if they banned slave trade. That's why even the
          anti-slavery delegates agreed to let slave trade be part of the country.

Kennan, Michael. Define 3/5 Compromise. 2010 eHow, Inc. April 24th, 2010 <>. 

          Kennan provides a useful definition of the 3/5 Compromise, presenting what happened in a basic manner to give an overview of the event. His article, though short,
          provided a decent summary of the compromise and the issues it covered, as well as mentioned the thirteenth amendment, which nullified the 3/5 Compromise.

Mintz, S. The Three-Fifth Compromise. April 11, 2010, Digital History. April 11, 2010 <>.

          Mintz describes the 3/5 Compromise in a detailed summary, explaining some of the political reasons behind some decisions made and
          advantages/disadvantages presented by some of the members of the Constitutional Convention. Mintz's useful summary, while being somewhat short, is different
          from the other summaries we've found, providing information on the more political parts of the compromise and its effects.

Ohline, Howard A. "Republicanism and Slavery: The Origins of the Three-fifths Clause in the United States Constitution." (1971). JSTOR. Web. 10 May 2010.

          Ohline analyzes the different arguments about the three-fifths compromise. He says that there are two sides of the arguments: three-fifths compromise created
          friction in politics, and the second opinion the clause had little importance. This article gives us insight to what we need the most, how the three-fifths compromise
          created friction.

R, Aarti. Three-Fifths Compromise. 2010 May 2, 2010 <>.

          Holding a biased view, the author of this article presents the three-fifths compromise as an inhumane way for the southern states to gain more political power.
          While simple, the article's bias opens up more gateways for search keywords and concepts to include in our final project.

Rakove, Jack, and Garry Wills. "A Slave to the System." Interview by Peter Robinson. Uncommon Knowledge. Hoover Institution; Stanford University, 19 Jan. 2004. Web.
Apr. 2010. <>.

          In the website, "uncommon knowledge" by Peter Robinson, Garry Wills and Jack Rakove are interviewed for the topic of three-fifths compromise. They debate on
          whether Jefferson was a slave to the south after describing the three-fifths compromise briefly. They address the immediate effects of the 3/5ths compromise
          comprehensively, from the views of Jefferson, Hamilton, and the presidential election of 1800 and of Adams. The interview also examines the actual difference the extra
          "slave votes" made, instead of the hypothetical arguments made by some others.

The Thirteenth Amendment: The Abolition of Slavery. 2010 University of Missouri-Kansas School of Law. May 2, 2010<

          This webpage gives a full description of the thirteenth amendment, discussing slavery in a negative tone and how the thirteenth amendment made an impact on 
          American society through examples of court cases, including the Dred Scott case.

The Three-Fifths Compromise. 2006 W. W. Norton and Company, Inc. April 24th, 2010<>.

          Another simple overview, this article presented the 3/5 Compromise and described the issues that had been argued over during the Constitutional Convention. As
          well as this overview, the website provided a few bar graphs that showed the number of seats in the House of Representatives, illustrating some effects that the 
          compromise had on the number of seats. Beneath that were additional effects of the compromise, including a presidential election and how the compromise had
          changed the vote.

University of Louisiana, The Slavery Compromises. November 12, 2002, University of Louisiana at Lafayette. April 11, 2010 <

          This short essay describes the slavery issues of the 3/5 Compromise, using some of the arguments of the people who had been present at the Constitutional
          Conventions to present opposing viewpoints on the subject and what they thought should be done about counting slaves for taxation purposes. This source
          presents a wider viewpoint on the slavery issues than on the political, and is not just a simple summary like some other sources.

Wills, Garry. Negro President: Jefferson and the Slave Power. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2003. Print.

          In his book, Gary wills re-examines the early American history, arguing that none of the framers intended for any rights of the slaves. He argues that Jefferson was 
          making efforts to maintain slavery when he was in presidency. Also, he lists many effects of the three-fifths compromise in the book. He argues that the presidents
          would be different, therefore the actions that the presidents did would not be there if not for the three-fifths compromise.